MUSEUMVIEWS & GSHA (Global Sports Heritage Association)’s celebration of Sports Heritage along the Silk Road are inspired by the Silk Road Week, an annual event conceived by Chinese Museums Association, International Association for the Study of Silk Road Textiles (IASSRT), and China National Silk Museum in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The theme for #SilkRoadWeek 2020 is “The Silk Roads: Mutual Learning for Future Collaboration.” We thank IN ZHEJIANG, our media partner in China (follow them on Facebook).
NOTE that all entries in this series are akin to bookmarks which we will expand upon during the coming months, and, indeed, many years.
It is uncertain by whom and when archery was invented. It is, however, safe to credit cavemen whose use of bows and arrows is well documented in a great number of cave paintings, around the world.
To mark this first annual #SilkRoadWeek (June 19-25), we are celebrating the history of sports heritage along the Silk Road. We start the week with archery which many in the West and the East agree has a very long history in Asia.
Archery as a sport has a long history starting with references in various classical art, and texts in Arabic, Assyrian, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, Korean and Japanese, among others.
The Sanskrit term for archery, dhanurveda, came to refer to martial arts in general. The master archers in the ancient Kingdom of Goguryeo (고구려) – present day KOREA -, located along Manchuria were said to have been exceptionally skilled in the art of archery.
Image: Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, 15,000-5,000 BP, Spain
To this day, archers in KOREA dominate the sport in nearly all international competitions. At the Rio Olympic Games in 2016, Korea won the gold medal in all four categories – men’s and women’s team and individual. South Korea’s archers have won 39 Olympic medals, 23 gold, as well as every women’s (recurve) event since women’s archery joined the Olympics, at Seoul, in 1988.
In the Liao and MONGOLIA states in the 10th to 11th Centuries, Mongols & their ancestors played a game called ‘Shooting the Willow’ to demonstrate their skills in the art of archery. From the time of Genghis Khan (1162-1277) and the Mongolian nation proper, there are numerous accounts of great feats of archery recorded in visual and textual traditions.
Image: Liu Guandao: Khubilai Khan on the Hunt, paint and ink on silk. 1280, collection National Palace Museum in Taipei
“There is nothing that gentlemen compete over (zheng), if at all, it is in archery…when ascending to the shooting platform and upon descending offering drink- such competition is truly of gentlemen.”
The Analects of Confuscious, translated by James Legge.
In CHINA, the earliest evidence of archery dates to the Shang Dynasty (1766-1027 BC). Everyone from the emperor down to ordinary civilians learned variety of archery practices and traditions. During the Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (1122-256 BC), Archery is documented as one of the Six Noble Arts and when exercised at court, Nobelmen who were in attendance were entertained by music and live performances. The Six Arts (六藝) to master included: Rites (禮), Music (樂), Archery (射), Charioteering (御), Calligraphy (書) , and Mathematics (數).
JAPAN’s history of archery dates back to the pre-historical times though the first images illustrating Japanese asymmetrical longbow are from the Yayoi period (c. 500 BC-300 AD).
One of Japan’s best known martial arts Kyūdō (弓道 – the way of the bow) is practiced primarily for physical, moral and spiritual development. There are different styles of the game including Ogasawara, Heki, Honda and Yamato.
The technique is broken down into Eight Stages of Shooting (Shaho-Hassetsu): 1) Ashibumi – placing the footing; 2) Dozukuri – forming the body; 3) Yugamae – readying the bow; 4) Uchiokoshi – raising the bow straightly (Ogasawara and Honda style) or slantwise (Heki and Yamato style); 5) Hikiwake; drawing apart; 6) Kai; the full draw; 7) Hanare; the release; 8) Zanshin: “the remaining body or mind” or “the continuation of the shot”
Likewise, rituals of the types of arrow, bow and costume are as complex as are most archery traditions in the region, all intricately inter-woven with historic and at times mythical references.
Image: Actor Nakamura Shikan (1818 -1825) as samurai by Utagawa Toyokuni (1777-1835).
In TURKEY, traditional archery – practiced on foot & on horseback – encompasses principles, rituals and social practices, the craftsmanship of traditional archery equipment, archery disciplines and shooting techniques that have evolved over centuries. The craftsmanship of traditional archery equipment, generally decorated with calligraphy, ornaments and marquetry, is also a key component of the element, requiring specific skills and knowledge. Bearers and practitioners ensure the continued viability of the element by adapting it to contemporary conditions, and there has been a remarkable increase in female archers and trainees in recent years. Courtesy Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Turkey, General Directorate of Research and Training, 2017 (UNESCO)
MUSEUMVIEWS & GSHA (Global Sports Heritage Association)’s celebration of sports heritage along the Silk Road are inspired by the Silk Road Week, an annual event conceived by Chinese Museums Association, International Association for the Study of Silk Road Textiles (IASSRT), and China National Silk Museum in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The theme of this annual #SilkRoadWeek “Mutual Learning for Future Collaboration” perfectly sums up our appreciation for #SportsHeritage and its enormously rich, global histories.
We thank IN ZHEJIANG, our media partner in China (follow them on Facebook).
Stay tuned for updates and news about GSHA during the coming months.